Technology makes it easy to copy and share ideas and information. Learn how to maintain academic integrity while you are doing your research.
When you use outside sources for a project, you need to cite them. Your sources could be books, primary source documents, magazines or newspapers articles, or encyclopedia articles, but they may also include videos, images, audio recordings, or websites. You must cite them to:
Different subject areas have different needs when it comes to citing sources. Because of that, there are numerous different citation styles. The most common citation styles are:
Check with your teacher to find out which citation style is required for your project.
The official source for MLA style is the MLA Handbook by For free, online information on using MLA style, see these resources:
The official source for APA style is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by For free, online information on using APA style, see these resources:
Get Your Citations Built for You!
Many INFOhio resources have citation helpers. When you select a book or article, look for a link labeled Cite/Citation/Citing and click it to get a rough draft of a citation. Treat all citation helpers as a starting point for a rough draft of a citation.
Be Careful! Computer-generated citations and citation helpers can be very good, but treat them like you would a rough draft. You (the student) are responsible for making sure your citations are correct. Check your citations against the style manual or the Purdue OWL site.
Is it a book, a book chapter, or an article?
To cite your source correctly, you need to know what kind of source it is. Play Citation Tetris, a computer game designed by Ohio academic librarian, Ken Irwin. Identify whether the citation block is for a book, book chapter, or article before it lands.
If you don't cite the sources you use, that's considered plagiarism. Whether it's done on purpose or by accident, plagiarism is against the rules. This information will help you recognize plagiarism, so you can avoid it and its consequences.
Tutorials on Citing and Document Sources
Categories of Plagiarism
Plagiarism takes a lot of different forms. Here are a few of the most common faces of plagiarism:
Useful Web Resources on Plagiarism
Evaluating sources is one of the most important parts of research. Download and use the CRAP Test Website Evaluation Checklist to evaluate the books, articles, websites, and other sources you find on your topic.
For more information on the CRAP Test, visit these sites:
Copyright is the exclusive legal right to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic, or musical material, and to authorize others to do the same.
Online copyright resources
More About Copyright
Copyright and Fair Use
Copyright and Creative Commons
Copyright and the Classroom